Marmots: They're sort of both. Males are territorial and have harems of multiple females and offspring, usually creating a family unit of less than 20 animals. We can split the 10 points.
Planets: Here are descriptions of where the planets are chillin' at over the course of this year. They are not always visible, but it was probably either Jupiter, which is at opposition right now (essentially we're seeing a "full Jupiter") or Saturn that we looked at with binoculars. One million points for me for general astronomical correctness; ten for Tyson for correctly differentiating between a star and a planet.
A Dirty Sanchez is either funny or gross, depending on the degree of seriousness with which it's suggested.
Brian Jones founded the Rolling Stones and is now dead. I still don't know how or why John Darnielle thinks he'd be like Brian Wilson. Maybe sort of old and sad, and trying to capitalize on their past success?
Dinu Lipatti was a Romanian pianist. I don't know why someone would need his bones.
Gas in Baker is an even $5.
Sand accumulates not because of static cling or anything like that, but primarily because of a process called saltation.
The lake that covered a big chunk of the intermountain west was Lake Lahontan. A summary of Nevada's brief history as a seafloor is here.
As for Mercury, that's going to take some digging, and I haven't downloaded Google Earth on this computer yet. If anything interesting turns up, I'll post it.